Major Breakthrough In The Understanding Of Cancer

Major breakthrough in​ the​ understanding of​ cancer
Hunting for​ Genetic Mutations and​ Cancer
The current paradigm in​ medical research holds that the​ cause of​ most cancers is​ a​ genetic mutation. for​ instance, according to​ the​ National Human Genome Research Institute NHGRI, an institute at​ the​ NIH, all cancers are based on genetic mutations in​ body cells. in​ fact, mutation hunting is​ big business. Just look at​ the​ NIH budget allocated to​ discoveries of​ genetic mutations, the​ number of​ biotech companies chasing genetic mutations, the​ magnitude of​ the​ licensing agreements between biotech and​ pharmaceutical companies aimed to​ utilize newly discovered genetic mutations, and​ the​ number of​ stories in​ the​ media on genetic mutations and​ their socalled link to​ disease. However, this huge effort and​ billions of​ dollars has produced few discoveries and​ little benefits to​ the​ public. the​ reason for​ this limited success is​ simple. the​ cause of​ cancer is​ not a​ genetic mutation.
The story of​ the​ BRCA1 gene is​ a​ typical example of​ mutation hunting.
The Mystery of​ BRCA1
Genes, in​ general, produce proteins, which are the​ building blocks of​ cells. the​ concentration of​ the​ protein is​ tightly regulated. a​ mutated gene produces an abnormal concentration of​ its protein, which may lead to​ disease. in​ 1994, Mark Skolnick, PhD, discovered the​ BRCA1 gene BRCA1 is​ short for​ BReast CAncer 1. Following the​ discovery, scientists observed an abnormally low level of​ the​ BRCA1 protein in​ breast cancer tissues. the​ BRCA1 protein is​ a​ cell cycle suppressor, which means that the​ protein prevents cell replication. This observation created a​ lot of​ excitement. at​ the​ time, scientists believed that they were on the​ verge of​ finding the​ cause of​ breast cancer. the​ reasoning was that breast cancer patients must have a​ mutated BRCA1 gene, which would explain the​ decreased production of​ the​ protein, and​ the​ excessive replication of​ breast cancer cells in​ tumors.
In the​ United States, 180,000 cases of​ breast cancer are diagnosed each year. However, the​ BRCA1 gene is​ mutated in​ less than 5% of​ these cases. in​ more than 95% of​ breast cancer patients the​ gene is​ not mutated.
So here is​ the​ mystery. if​ the​ gene is​ not mutated in​ the​ great majority of​ the​ breast cancer patients, why are the​ tumors showing low levels of​ the​ BRCA1 protein? Today, this is​ one of​ the​ biggest mysteries in​ cancer research.
The BRCA1 gene is​ not unique. Many normal nonmutated genes exhibit a​ mysterious abnormal increased or​ decreased production of​ proteins in​ cancer. Moreover, studies also report abnormal gene expression of​ normal genes in​ other diseases, such as​ atherosclerosis, obesity, osteoarthritis, type II diabetes, alopecia, type I ​ diabetes, multiple sclerosis, asthma, lupus, thyroiditis, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and​ graft versus host disease.
The Discovery
A virus is​ a​ collection of​ genes. to​ replicate, some viruses settle in​ the​ nucleus of​ the​ host cell and​ use the​ cell machinery to​ replicate. What is​ the​ effect of​ a​ viral gene on the​ production of​ cellular proteins?
Think of​ a​ gene as​ an assembly line of​ a​ protein. Like all assembly lines, the​ gene has two parts, a​ conveyor the​ gene coding section, and​ a​ control panel the​ gene promoter/enhancer. Imagine a​ cellular shop that assembles a​ product called BRCA1. One of​ the​ many buttons on the​ control panel is​ called Nbox. Pressing the​ button increases production. However, only a​ small number of​ operators called transcription factors, those who pass a​ special certification called the​ p300 test, have permission to​ press this button. What happens when a​ virus opens a​ shop across the​ street from the​ cellular shop called latent infection to​ produce its viral products? the​ control panel in​ the​ viral shop also has an Nbox button. to​ start production, the​ virus begins to​ hire away some of​ the​ certified operators. What is​ the​ effect of​ this hiring away on the​ number of​ available BRCA1 units? the​ number decreases. Moreover, the​ decrease becomes apparent even before the​ virus starts production the​ hiring away is​ what creates the​ effect, not the​ viral proteins. the​ viral assembly line competes with the​ BRCA1 assembly line for​ the​ certified operators, and​ by hiring them away prevents the​ cellular shop from producing the​ optimum, or​ healthy number of​ BRCA1 units. the​ lower number of​ BRCA1 units leads to​ excessive cell replication and​ breast cancer. See a​ more technical description in​ a​ recent paper published in​ the​ European Journal of​ Cancer.
The infection with the​ latent virus causes abnormal production of​ other genes, and​ as​ a​ result, the​ development of​ other chronic diseases. This sequence of​ events easily explains why people who suffer from obesity are also more likely to​ suffer from diabetes, cancer, and​ heart disease, and​ why a​ recent large scale study found that a​ lowfat diet does not protect against breast cancer. it​ also explains another surprising observation that male pattern baldness is​ associated with heart disease and​ prostate cancer. in​ general, this sequence of​ events easily explains the​ numerous observations indicating a​ coexistence or​ comorbidity of​ some chronic diseases.
This discovery was first described by Dr. Hanan Polansky in​ his book, Microcompetition with Foreign DNA and​ the​ Origin of​ Chronic Disease, published by the​ Center for​ the​ Biology of​ Chronic Disease.
To summarize the​ cause of​ cancer, and​ other chronic diseases, is​ not a​ genetic mutation, its an infection with a​ latent virus.
Reaction of​ the​ Scientific Community
What is​ the​ scientific community saying about Dr. Polanskys discovery?
Consider what the​ famous heart surgeon and​ Living Legend, Michael E. DeBakey, said about the​ discovery, the​ theory underlying the​ basic concept concerning the​ origin of​ chronic diseases presented by Dr. Polansky is​ most interesting, indeed fascinating … Perhaps a​ symposium could be held to​ provide a​ forum for​ further discussions and​ critiques of​ this fascinating theory.
Elena N. Naumova, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of​ Family Medicine and​ Community Health, Tufts University School of​ Medicine, said, Dr. Polanskys work compellingly demonstrates a​ framework that could bring together researchers from different fields. His proposed theory will work its magic by clarifying ambiguous definitions, identifying similarities and​ differences in​ various biological processes, and​ discovering new pathways … I ​ believe that Dr. Polanskys book will catalyze the​ scientific learning process, promote interdisciplinary crossfertilization, stimulate development of​ treatment strategies and​ ​Drug​ discovery, and​ leave the​ reader inspired.
Sivasubramanian Baskar, PhD, Senior Scientist from the​ National Cancer Institute, NIH, said, at​ first, I ​ wish to​ congratulate Dr. Hanan Polansky for​ his scientific bravery to​ take such a​ unique, novel approach to​ further stimulate our understanding of​ the​ origin and​ establishment of​ chronic diseases. the​ philosophy underscored is​ an excellent one . . . the​ amazing correlation between theoretical predictions and​ observed in​ vivo effects seems to​ bring us a​ step closer to​ a​ deeper understanding of​ such complex biologic processes.
Marc Pouliot, PhD, Assistant Professor, Department of​ Anatomy and​ Physiology, Faculty of​ Medicine, Université Laval, Canada, said, the​ concept of​ microcompetition will change our approach in​ the​ study of​ chronic diseases and​ will furthermore give scientists a​ higher level of​ understanding in​ biology. Presentation of​ this concept undoubtedly provides a​ new set of​ opportunities for​ attacking chronic diseases … They lead the​ way to​ new approaches in​ chronic disease treatment.
Howard A. Young, PhD, Section Head, Cellular and​ Molecular Immunology Section, Laboratory of​ Experimental Immunology, National Cancer Institute, NIH, said, in​ summary, Dr. Polansky is​ to​ be applauded for​ his attempt to​ provide a​ unifying basis for​ chronic diseases. His theories are stimulating and​ offer a​ basis for​ experimental testing and​ possible treatment.
Michael J. Gonzalez, PhD, Professor, Medical Sciences, University of​ Puerto Rico, said, I ​ know this book will profoundly impact medical research, ​Drug​ discovery, as​ well as​ natural therapies. I ​ also believe it​ will benefit the​ scientific community and​ society in​ general by providing further means of​ treatment for​ conditions in​ which only palliative care is​ available.
You can find more reactions and​ the​ biographies the​ scientists reacting to​ Dr. Polanskys discovery on the​ publishers see link below.
Hope for​ Cure and​ Protection
The significance of​ Dr. Polanskys discovery cannot be overstated. for​ the​ first time, we can start to​ feel a​ little better about these diseases. With his discovery, pharmaceutical and​ biotech companies can now start to​ design medications that will target the​ cause of​ the​ disease rather than its symptoms, and​ therefore, cure the​ sick and​ protect the​ healthy from these deadly diseases.
Major Breakthrough In The Understanding Of Cancer Major Breakthrough In The Understanding Of Cancer Reviewed by Henda Yesti on February 06, 2018 Rating: 5

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